“It is the mark of an educated mind to entertain a thought without accepting it.” – Aristotle

Stone Age: (3.4 million years ago)

Neolithic Revolution: Agricultural (12,000 years ago) Started near Egypt

Aleppo, Syria 9000 BC initial cities established

Jericho, Palestine (8000 BC)

Susa, Iran (6000 BC)

Egypt (5000 BC)

Indus Valley Civilization (Harappa) 5000 BC

Xia Dynasty, China (4000 BC)

Bronze Age: 6000 BC (Copper + Tin) = Tools & Weapons

During 2500 BC, Mesopotamian Era: – Assyrian soldiers

Tutankhamun, Egyptian Pharaoh: – 1300 BC (Kingship established)

Man dominated women as they are in control of surplus production. Babylonian Slave Market

Iron Age: 3000 BC

It was in Nigeria, Iron melted mixed with carbon gave steel.

For the first time in writing was invented. Dated Records.

1st Literature = Epic of Gilgamesh.

Ancient Greek:

Dark Ages (1200 – 800 BC) No records available

Archaic Period (800 – 500 BC) Homer (Iliad & Odyssey) & Hesiod (Works and Days) (1st Dated Records)

1st Olympiad, Greece – 776 BC (Marked the end of Dark Ages)

Greeks were Polytheist (14 Olympian Gods)

Classical Period (500 -323 BC) Golden Age “Death of Alexander ended the period”

Socrates, Plato & Aristotle

Populations increased and cities established (Delphi, Sparta, Athens, Olympia). No specific religion to make State Religion. No unity among them.

Class Divisions of Society: 3 Categories. Aristocracy (Upper Class; rule over slaves), Free Man; neither becomes slaves nor slave anyone (Demos), Slaves.

In Sparta, the majority were slaves and were ruled by Aristocrats while in Athens, demos had a crucial political role to play as they controlled the navy. Hence, a compromise was made between Aristocracy and Demos to form Democracy. No role of slaves, non-Greek and women.

Oligarchy (Few to Rule) came. Demagogue were those to represented the demos. Periander, Tyrant of Corinth; tyrant was having a similar role as Robin hood.

Greek-Persian War (50 years) Darius I, Xerxes I, both were Persian. Athens and Spartan fought together against Persians and saved Greece but after which they stated to fight among themselves (431 – 404 BC) Peloponnesus War. Spartan won.

Hellenistic Period (323 – 146 BC) After Alexander’s Death.